Posted on November 21, by Scott Alexander I.
History[ edit ] Colonial and early US history[ edit ] From the beginning of the European colonization of the AmericasEuropeans often removed native peoples from lands they wished to occupy. The means varied, including treaties made under considerable duress, forceful ejection, and violence, and in a few cases voluntary moves based on mutual agreement.
The removal caused many problems such as tribes losing means of livelihood by being subjected to a defined area, Pros gambling essay having inadmissible land for agriculture, and hostility between tribes.
The area was acres . Today it is called Indian Mills in Shamong Township  . One example was the Five Civilized Tribeswho were removed from their native lands in the southern United States and moved to modern-day Oklahomain a mass migration that came to be known as the Trail of Tears.
Some of the lands these tribes were given to inhabit following the removals eventually became Indian reservations.
Relations between settlers and natives had grown increasingly worse as the settlers encroached on territory and natural resources in the West.
InPresident Ulysses S. Grant pursued a "Peace Policy" as an attempt to avoid violence. The policy called for the replacement of government officials by religious men, nominated by churches, to oversee the Indian agencies on reservations in order to teach Christianity to the native tribes.
The Quakers were especially active in this policy on reservations.
Reservations were generally established by executive order. In many cases, white settlers objected to the size of land parcels, which were subsequently reduced. A report submitted to Congress in found widespread corruption among the federal Native American agencies and generally poor conditions among the relocated tribes.
Many tribes ignored the relocation orders at first and were forced onto their limited land parcels. Enforcement of the policy required the United States Army to restrict the movements of various tribes. The pursuit of tribes in order to force them back onto reservations led to a number wars with Native Americans which included some massacres.
The most well-known conflict was the Sioux War on the northern Great Plainsbetween andwhich included the Battle of Little Bighorn. Other famous wars in this regard included the Nez Perce War.
By the late s, the policy established by President Grant was regarded as a failure, primarily because it had resulted in some of the bloodiest wars between Native Americans and the United States.
ByPresident Rutherford B. Hayes began phasing out the policy, and by all religious organizations had relinquished their authority to the federal Indian agency. Individualized reservations — [ edit ] InCongress undertook a significant change in reservation policy by the passage of the Dawes Actor General Allotment Severalty Act.
The act ended the general policy of granting land parcels to tribes as-a-whole by granting small parcels of land to individual tribe members. In some cases, for example, the Umatilla Indian Reservationafter the individual parcels were granted out of reservation land, the reservation area was reduced by giving the "excess land" to white settlers.
The individual allotment policy continued until when it was terminated by the Indian Reorganization Act. It laid out new rights for Native Americans, reversed some of the earlier privatization of their common holdings, and encouraged tribal sovereignty and land management by tribes.
The act slowed the assignment of tribal lands to individual members and reduced the assignment of "extra" holdings to nonmembers.“Motivation is everything. You can do the work of two people, but you can’t be two people.
Instead you have to inspire the next guy down the line and get him to inspire his people.' – Lee Iacocca You’ve probably met a person who oozed of charisma. The almost-indescribable characteristic is something we associate with other leaders, while we consider some people simply lacking it.
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Gambling can leave players with devastating effects; as a result, governments can find many solutions the problem associated with gambling.
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