Cost Associated with Employees Absenteeism Absenteeism is costly and managers are constantly exploring ways to reduce it.
It has been argued that leaders are born with traits and are not made. This means that the culture, the environment, and the people leaders lived with had nothing to contribute to their leadership. It should however be noted that the Great Man and the Traits theories that share the view that leaders are born but not made are contested against the leaders are made theories of Behavioural and Contingency theories.
There are so many definitions associated with leadership. Leadership has no fixed meaning. Pardey defines leadership as the ability to inspire fellowship, bring about change, make decision, provide direction, and that this skills and qualities can be developed. In the olden days of Alexander the Great and Julius Caesar, leadership was related to the military but not with the organisation.
Braveness and the ability to take initiative were considered as leadership in the military. According to Bennis, W. Organisations require a leader as it is an integral part of an organisations management. Leadership is seen in organisations such as families, political Institutions, businesses, military, academic institutions, religious bodies, entertainment and sports.
These theories include the Great man theory, the Traits theory, the Contingency theory and the Behavioural theory. The Great man theory assumes that leaders are born and not made. It also believes that great leaders will come out from the society to solve a particular problem which the society is facing within a particular time.
This theory was based on the study of people who had already attained great leadership.
One advantage of the Great man theory is that it had been able to identify some of the Great leaders in the olden days. However, gender issues were not discussed under the great man theory and women were hardly given the opportunity to assume these roles.
The theory could also not mention some great leaders in modern day corporate organisation. This prevented the theory from identifying the influence the environment, the culture and the people had on the development of these Great leaders from their youthful days.
Again, the trait theory also states that people are born with inherited talents. It also assumes that these talents are particularly suited to leadership.
The theory relates good leadership to people who have the right combination of natural traits and talents. Stogdill also states the following traits and skills in relation to leadership under traits as ability to change to suit certain situations, aware of the culture needs of the societyachievement-orientedambitious, assertive, team player, decisive, reliable, desire to influence his followers, energetic ,persistent, self-confident, stress tolerant and willingness to assume responsibility.
He also mentioned skills such as knowledgeable and intelligent, creative, conceptually skilled, diplomatic, fluent in speaking and tactful, intelligent about group task, administrative ability, persuasive and socially skilled.
Another contributor to the trait theory, Jago states leader traits under groupings as physical and constitutional factors, personality characteristics, social characteristics, skills and ability. Again, the traits can be classified as trait-like and state-like attributes. Zaccaro adds that, state-like traits are more skilled traits and can be developed and adapted to various circumstances.
The contingency theory talks about the concepts and the frameworks that are able to take into account both differences in leaders and differences in situations. Here, there is no one best way to lead.
For example, the leader consults the followers if there is enough time available and commands his followers if they are difficult to be controlled or there is an emergency.
Behavioural theory is one of the theories under leadership that assumes that leaders can be made, but are not born. It also adds that successful leadership are based on definable and learnable behaviour. This leadership theory does not seek inborn traits or capabilities. Instead, they look at what leaders actually do.
Jago puts it that frequency of processes, activities and behaviours leads to effectiveness of leadership. The Great man theory assumes that leaders are born and not made as it argues that Great leaders will rise when there is the need for a leader.
There is always a time when the relentless need for a leader can be seen within a particular situation.
Leaders such as Jesus Christ of Nazareth and Sampson are leaders who came about when there was a need for a leader.The Module Directory provides information on all taught modules offered by Queen Mary during the academic year The modules are listed alphabetically, and you can search and sort the list by title, key words, academic school, module code and/or semester.
Cross-cultural management is the new challenge to the new age managers. It's not just a Human Resource (HR) issue, but departmental managers are also equally responsible for managing and motivating their respective cross-cultural workforce for getting .
1. Introduction. The purpose of this study is to explore the link between job satisfaction and organisational performance and to determine whether there is there an empirically provable relationship between these two variables and the direction and the intensity of this relationship.
1. Foreword by David Cameron, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. Corruption is the cancer at the heart of so many of our problems in the world today.
Goldsmiths, University of London is in South East London. We offer undergraduate and postgraduate degrees as well as teacher training (PGCE), Study Abroad and short courses.
Essay: Organizational Behavior Introduction: Organizational Behavior is very challenging and interesting concept of modern era of business; it is relevant to the individuals and groups in the organization also it’s important for the managers to understand the behaviors of employees and manage it in a proper way.