Want to start a startup? Get funded by Y Combinator.
Biography[ edit ] As a young man, Cipolla wanted to teach history and philosophy in an Italian high school, and therefore enrolled at the political science faculty at Pavia University.
While a student there, thanks to professor Franco Borlandi, a specialist in Medieval economic history, he discovered his passion for economic history. Subsequently he studied at the Sorbonne and the London School of Economics. Cipolla obtained his first teaching post in economic history in Catania at the age of In Cipolla left for the United States as a Fulbright fellow and in became a visiting professor at the University of California, Berkeley.
Two years later he obtained a full professorship. Essays[ edit ] Cipolla produced two essays on economics, circulated in English among friends in andthen published in in Italian under the title Allegro ma non troppo "Forward, but not too fast", "Happy but not too much", from the musical, "Quickly, but not too quick".
The first essay, The role of spices and black pepper in particular in Medieval Economic Development, traces the curious correlations between spice import and population expansion in the late Middle Ages, postulating a causation due to a supposed aphrodisiac effect of black pepper.
The second essay, The Basic Laws of Human Stupidity,    explores the controversial subject of stupidity. Stupid people are seen as a groupmore powerful by far than major organizations such as the Mafia and the industrial complexwhich without regulations, leaders or manifesto nonetheless manages to operate to great effect and with incredible coordination.
These are Cipolla's five fundamental laws of stupidity: Always and inevitably everyone underestimates the number of stupid individuals in circulation. The probability that a certain person will be stupid is independent of any other characteristic of that person.
A stupid person is a person who causes losses to another person or to a group of persons while himself deriving no gain and even possibly incurring losses.
Non-stupid people always underestimate the damaging power of stupid individuals. A stupid person is the most dangerous type of person. As is evident from the third law, Cipolla identifies two factors to consider when exploring human behaviour: Benefits and losses that an individual causes to him or herself.
Benefits and losses that an individual causes to others. Graph with the benefits and losses that an individual causes to him or herself and causes to others. By creating a graph with the first factor on the x-axis and the second on the y-axis, we obtain four groups of people, with an additional category either existing in its own right or drawn from the members of each previous category whose position with respect to both axes is least extreme: Intelligent people top rightwho contribute to society and who leverage their contributions into reciprocal benefits Helpless people top leftwho contribute to society but are taken advantage of by it and especially by the "bandit" sector of it ; note, however, that extreme altruists and pacifists may willingly and consciously rather than helplessly accept a place in this category for moral or ethical reasons Bandits bottom rightwho pursue their own self-interest even when doing so poses a net detriment to societal welfare Stupid people bottom leftwhose efforts are counterproductive to both their and others' interests ineffectual people center Cipolla further refines his definition of "bandits" and "naive people" by noting that members of these groups can either add to or detract from the general welfare, depending on the relative gains or losses that they cause themselves and society.
Graphically, this idea is represented by a line of slope -1, which bisects the second and fourth quadrants and intersects the y-axis at the origin.
European Society and Economy, — Apr 28, · Opinions expressed by Forbes Contributors are their own. While I certainly agree that college nowadays is a costly investment and that graduates need to . Carlo M. Cipolla (15 August – 5 September ) was an Italian economic grupobittia.com was born in Pavia, where he got his academic degree in Say's Law and Supply Side Economics.
It should be known that at the beginning of a dynasty, taxation yields a large revenue from small assessments.
Mistakes The aim of this essay is to analyse the close relationship between some common mistakes made by students of English and the principles studied in class. I will include not only my fourth form students’ mistakes but also my private students’ ones and my one ones.
Say's Law and Supply Side Economics. It should be known that at the beginning of a dynasty, taxation yields a large revenue from small assessments. Massively Parallel Peacebuilding.
The second part of the Conflict Frontiers Seminar series explains a new, complexity-oriented strategy for limiting destructive conflict and addressing complex challenges such as those posed by the rise of Authoritarian Populism.