The largest study to date, Cook et al. While only 64 papers 0. A later analysis by Legates et al.
Carter, Louisiana State University F. Uncertainties about future socioeconomic conditions as well as future climate changes can make it difficult to arrive at adaptation decisions now. However, the pace and magnitude of projected change emphasize the need to be prepared for a wide range and intensity of climate impacts in the future.
Planning and managing based on the climate of the last century means that tolerances of some infrastructure and species will be exceeded. Adaptation considerations include local, state, regional, national, and international issues. For example, the implications of international arrangements need to be considered in the context of managing the Great Lakes, the Columbia River, and the Colorado River to deal with drought.
Such a mix of approaches will require cross-boundary coordination at multiple levels as operational agencies integrate adaptation planning into their programs. Adaptation actions can be implemented reactively, after changes in climate occur, or proactively, to prepare for projected changes.
This chapter highlights efforts at the federal, regional, state, tribal, and local levels, as well as initiatives in the corporate and non-governmental sectors to build adaptive capacity and resilience in response to climate change.
While societal adaptation to climate variability is as old as civilization itself, the focus of this chapter is on preparing for unprecedented human-induced climate change through adaptation. A map of illustrative adaptation activities and four detailed case examples that highlight ongoing adaptation activity across the U.
Adjustment in natural or human systems to a new or changing environment that exploits beneficial opportunities or moderates negative effects. The potential of a system to adjust to climate change including climate variability and extremes to moderate potential damages, take advantage of opportunities, and cope with the consequences.
Technological change and substitutions that reduce resource inputs and emissions per unit of output. Although several social, economic, and technological actions would reduce emissions, with respect to climate change, mitigation means implementing actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions or increase the amount of carbon dioxide absorbed and stored by natural and man-made carbon sinks see Ch.
Stress that originates from different sources that affect natural, managed, and socioeconomic systems and can cause impacts that are compounded and sometimes unexpected.
An example would be when economic or market stress combines with drought to negatively impact farmers. A capability to anticipate, prepare for, respond to, and recover from significant multi-hazard threats with minimum damage to social well-being, the economy, and the environment.
A combination of the magnitude of the potential consequence s of climate change impact s and the likelihood that the consequence s will occur. The degree to which a system is susceptible to, or unable to cope with, adverse effects of climate change, including climate variability and extremes.
Vulnerability is a function of the character, magnitude, and rate of climate variation to which a system is exposed, its sensitivity, and its adaptive capacity. Copy link to clipboard Key Message 1 Substantial adaptation planning is occurring in the public and private sectors and at all levels of government; however, few measures have been implemented and those that have appear to be incremental changes.
An in-person meeting was held in Washington, D. Meeting discussions were followed by expert deliberation of draft key messages by the authors and targeted consultation with additional experts by the lead author of each key message.
Consensus was reached on all key messages and supporting text. Description of evidence base The key message and supporting text summarize extensive evidence documented in the peer-reviewed literature as well as the more than technical inputs received and reviewed as part of the Federal Register Notice solicitation for public input.
Numerous peer-reviewed publications indicate that a growing number of sectors, governments at all scales, and private and non-governmental actors are starting to undertake adaptation activity. Description of evidence base The key message and supporting text summarize extensive evidence documented in the peer reviewed literature as well as the more than technical inputs received and reviewed as part of the Federal Register Notice solicitation for public input.
A significant quantity of reviewed literature profiles barriers or constraints that are impeding the advancement of adaptation activity across sectors, scales, and regions. Moreover, additional citations are used in the text of the chapter to substantiate this key message.
Sharing best practices, learning by doing, and iterative and collaborative processes including stakeholder involvement, can help support progress. Literature submitted for this assessment, as well as additional literature reviewed by the author team, fully supports the concept that adaptations will ultimately need to be selected for their local applicability based on impacts, timing, political structure, finances, and other criteria.
The selection of locally and context-appropriate adaptations is enhanced by iterative and collaborative processes in which stakeholders directly engage with decision-makers and information providers. Additional citations are used in the text of the chapter to substantiate this key message.
Adaptation to multiple stresses requires assessment of the composite threats as well as tradeoffs amongst costs, benefits, and risks of available options. Climate change is only one of a multitude of stresses affecting social, environmental, and economic systems. Activity to date and literature profiling those activities support the need for climate adaptation activity to integrate the concerns of multiple stresses in decision-making and planning.
Numerous peer-reviewed publications indicate that no comprehensive adaptation evaluation metrics exist, meaning that no substantial body of literature or guidance materials exist on how to thoroughly evaluate the success of adaptation activities.
A challenge of creating adaptation evaluation metrics is the growing interest in mainstreaming; this means that separating out adaptation activities from other activities could prove difficult.and life as a result of climate change Concerted global adapt to the effects of climate change that are happening now and will worsen in the future.
uncertainties about climate change. Warming of the climate system is now unequivocal. It is now clear that. 22 Examples of Ecological Impacts of Climate Change in the United States Climate change is global in scope, but ecological impacts are often quite localized.
Although most of the evidence of the ecological impacts of climate change stems from trends observed among hundreds of species rather than a particular species, there are compelling. Context - Human well-being is highly dependent on ecosystems and the benefits they provide such as food and drinkable water.
Over the past 50 years, however, humans have had a tremendous impact on their environment. To better understand the consequences of current changes to ecosystems and to evaluate scenarios for the future, UN Secretary General Kofi Annan has launched a comprehensive.
Examines the science and arguments of global warming skepticism. Common objections like 'global warming is caused by the sun', 'temperature has changed naturally in the past' or 'other planets are warming too' are examined to see what the science really says.
Global climate change has already had observable effects on the environment.
Glaciers have shrunk, ice on rivers and lakes is breaking up earlier, plant and animal . The environmental impact of agriculture is the effect that different farming practices have on the ecosystems around them, The means-based evaluation looks at farmers' practices of agriculture, and the effect-based evaluation considers the actual effects of the agricultural system.
Assessment of the effects of global climate changes on.